Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS) is defined as a breathing disorder during sleep where the passage of air decreases due to the recurrent obstruction or collapse of the upper airway. This causes in the patient a lack of oxygen in the lungs and frequent awakenings during the sleep making it difficult for the patient to reach the deep and restful phase of sleep. This obstruction can be in any section of the path between the nasal wings and the hypopharynx for structural reasons, excessive relaxation of the muscles during sleep, the weight of the tissues themselves and other temporary reasons such as tonsillitis.
When the apnoea disappears, the muscles regain their normal tone, the flow of air into the lungs resumes and then it is when snoring occurs.
There are different types of apnoea, and the OSAS (obstructive sleep aponea syndrome) is the most frequent type and, as already mentioned, it is due to an obstruction or collapse of the airway for different reasons. There is another type of apnoea called CENTRAL aponea. The origin of this one is neurological, and it causes a lack of signal from the brain to the respiratory muscles even though
there is no actual obstruction.
MIXED forms (complex sleep apnoea syndrome) can also coexist. Given the prevalence of OSAS, we will focus on it